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语法释疑之分词

编辑: 路逍遥 关键词: 英语学习方法 来源: 逍遥右脑记忆


 


(一)大家都知道英文的动词(verb)不像中文那般单纯。比如说帮助一词,虽可做动词,也可做名词用;可是就没有时间性。而英文动词的变化可就多了,它可变成名词、形容词、副词等,而且还有所谓Tenses(时态)。比如help,就有下列各种时态:
  Simple Present 现在时态 -- help, helps
  Simple Past  过去时态 -- helped
  Simple Future 将来时态 -- shall help, will help ...
  Present Continuous 现在进行时态 -- be helping
  Present Perfect  现在完成时态 -- have helped, has helped...
  Present Perfect Continuous 现在完成进行时态 -- have been helped...
  Past Continuous 过去进行时态 -- was helping...
  Past Perfect  过去完成时态 -- had helped...
  Past Perfect Continuous 过去完成进行时态 -- had been helping...
  Future Continuous 将来进行时态 -- shall be helping...
  Future Perfect  将来完成时态 -- shall have helped...
  Future Perfect Continuous 将来完成进行时态 -- shall have been helping...
  Present Participle 现在式分词 -- helping
  Past Participle  过去式分词 -- helped
  Perfect Participle 完成式分词 -- having helped...

  实际上,上面所举的那个help,看来只有下列几种变形而已:
  help, helping, helped
  但是好多动词它的Past和Perfect时态的拼写法就不太相同,如:
  write: wrote(Past), written(Perfect)
  sing: sang(Past),  sung(Perfect)
  而有些动词则始终如一,各种时态(除了各类进行式)都是一样的拼写,如:
  cut,hit, hurt, let, put, read, shut ...
  上面所谈都是一些动词的基础知识。言归正传,基本上分词分为下列两种(第三种的Perfect Participle拼入  Past Participle):
  1. 现在式分词(Present Participle)
  2. 过去式分词(Past Participle)
  注意:过去式分词所用的动词都属于完成时态(Perfect)。

(二)我们先来看看下列的句子
  1. Mounting(骑上) his horse, the bandit(土匪) rode off.
  2. A soldier, wounded(受伤) in the Great War, came limping(一跛一跛的) by.
  第一个句子中,mounting修饰名词bandit,因此是个形容词(Adjective);但它还带有宾语(Object)horse,因此含有动词的意味。这就是分词的特征。
  第二个句子中,wounded也有动词和形容词的特征。这个过去分词还有被动的意思。
  现在分词(Present Participle, 如mounting)和动名词(Gerund)一样,都是在动词尾加上ing构成;而过去分词(Past Participle,如 wounded)则是在动词尾加上 ed, en,d, t 所构成。
  一、用分词作为定语(Attributive)/形容词(Adjective)
  1.1 分词放在被修饰的名词之前
  1. Thats an interesting story. (现在分词interesting, 名词story)
  2. I hear a barking dog. (barking, dog)
  3. I have often seen falling stars. (falling, stars)
  4. There is great danger in approaching(靠近) a wounded tiger. (过去分词wounded, 名词tiger)
  5. A burnt child dreads(惧怕) the fire. (burnt, child)
  1.2 如果是分词词组,则放在被修饰的名词之后
  1. The boy hurt by the car was sent to the hospital immediately. (名词boy, 分词词组hurt by the car)
  1.3 如果被修饰的名词是 something, anything, everything, nothing 等,分词也放在它们的后面
  1. There is nothing interesting. (名词nothing, 分词interesting)
  2. I felt something crawling up my leg. (something, crawling)
  1.4 如何分辨作为定词的分词或动名词
  1. 分词是有动词性的形容词,如: I can hear him singing a song.
  2. 动名词是有动词性的名词,如: I do not like his singing.
  3. 分词和名词间有主谓关系,  如:a swimming girl  (游泳的女孩)(你可说:女孩游泳)
  4. 动名词和名词间没有主谓关系,如:a swimming pool(游泳池)(但你不能说:水池游泳).


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